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Family SALTICIDAE Blackwall, 1841

Jumping Spiders


Compiler and date details

November 2013 - ABRS

2011 - B.J. Richardson, CSIRO Division of Ecological Sciences, Canberra

31 December 2002 - B.J. Richardson, University of Western Sydney, Penrith South DC, NSW & CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, ACT, & Marek Zabka, Katedra Zoologii AP, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

Introduction

Jumping spiders, the salticids, are a diverse component of the Australian fauna, with 362 species described and possibly a further 1000 species present. The family is found in all terrestrial and arboreal habitats throughout Australia and its territories, except the sub-antarctic islands. The fauna is highly endemic, especially in central and western parts of the continent. The salticid faunas of the tropical and coastal habitats of eastern and northern Australia show a strong New Guinean and Oriental influence. Some species are cosmotropical in distribution, one is trans-Pacific and ranges of a few extend to New Caledonia and New Zealand (Zabka 1990, 2002). The genera Bathippus, Viroqua and Thorelliola (no known Australian species), and Trite, Muziris, Salpesia and Heliophanus (misplaced species), are often listed as present in Australia although this is incorrect (Richardson & Zabka, this work). The species, Viroqua ultima (L. Koch, 1881), for which the type locality is reported as 'Australia?' is from Upolu, W Samoa (Zabka, unpubl.). The type locality of Maevia monacha Thorell 1881 may or may not be in Australia (Proszynski, 2011). The New Guinea species, Zenodorus juliae, is not known from any Australian specimen. Four genera are now excluded from the list of Australian taxa, together with a number of species: Bathippus Thorell, 1892; Dielenius; Hyllus C.L. Koch, 1846; and Thorelliolla Strand, 1942.

Salticids are skilful jumpers that use their excellent vision to hunt in daylight. Some Australian salticid genera (Myrmarachne, Damoetas, Ligonipes, Rhombonotus, Judalana) mimic ants. Others are beetle (Coccorchestes) or fly (Abracadabrella) mimics. Many species may supplement their diet with nectar (Jackson et al. 2001). The behaviour of many Australian species has been studied by Jackson and his co-workers. A multigene, molecular-based phylogeny of the family is being developed, particularly by Maddison and his co-workers. This shows several distinctive Australian-based radiations at the subfamilial level (Maddisn et al 2008). A good summary of the general ecology and behaviour of jumping spiders can be found in Forster and Forster (1999). Pictures and drawings of many Australian species can be found in Proszynski (2011) and Nieuwenhuys (2003).

 

Excluded Taxa

SALTICIDAE: Bathippus Thorell, 1892 [the genus has not been found in Australia (Richardson & Zabka, unpubl. 2003)]

SALTICIDAE: Dilenius Thorell, 1870 — Richardson, B.J. & Zabka, M., http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home (no species in this genus are known to occur in Australia)

SALTICIDAE: Hyllus C.L. Koch, 1846 — Davies, V.T. & Zabka, M. 1989. Illustrated keys to the genera of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 27: 189-266 (Hyllus is not included in their list of Australian genera, although it is variously listed as from Australia, basically following Bonnet (1957), however neither the types, nor any other specimens of these species have been collected in Australia (M. Zabka, unpubl. data))

SALTICIDAE: Thorelliolla Strand, 1942 — Richardson, B.J. & Zabka, M., http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home (no specimens of genus known from Australia)

SALTICIDAE: Hyllus bernsteini Thorell, 1881 — Davies, V.T. & Zabka, M. 1989. Illustrated keys to the genera of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 27: 189-266 (neither the types, nor any other specimens of this species have been collected in Australia (M. Zabka, unpubl. data))

SALTICIDAE: Thorelliola doryphora (Keyserling, 1882) — Richardson, B.J. & Zabka, M., http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home (no specimens of this species known from Australia)

SALTICIDAE: Hyllus giganteus C.L. Koch, 1846 — Davies, V.T. & Zabka, M. 1989. Illustrated keys to the genera of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 27: 189-266 [194] (variously listed as from Australia, basically following Bonnet (1957), however neither the types, nor any other specimens of these species have been collected in Australia (M. Zabka, unpubl. data))

SALTICIDAE: Zenodorus juliae (Thorell, 1881)

SALTICIDAE: Bathippus montrouzieri Lucas, 1869 [Richardson, B.J. & Zabka, M., now consider that this species, though often listed as an Australian species, is not known from any Australian specimen] — Zabka, M. 1990. Salticidae (Araneae) of Oriental, Australian and Pacific Regions, IV. Genus Ocrisiona Simon, 1901. Records of the Australian Museum 42: 27-43 [27] (recorded species for Australia)

SALTICIDAE: Diolenius phrinoides (Walckenaer, 1837) — Koch, L. 1881. Die Arachniden Australiens, nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet. Nürnberg : Bauer & Raspe Vol. 1 1213-1271 pp. [1240] (reports Diolenius phrinoides from Australia); Davies, V.T. & Zabka, M. 1989. Illustrated keys to the genera of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 27: 189-266 (Australian representative not phrinoides; shown in fig. 21)

SALTICIDAE: Viroqua ultima (L. Koch, 1881)

 

Diagnosis

Tiny to large entelegyne spiders. The body compact, sometimes robust, 1–25 mm in length. The eyes are arranged in 3 (4+2+2) or 4 (2+2+2+2) rows; the anterior median eyes much larger than the other pairs. The cephalothorax usually rectangular, less frequently oval or elongate, usually with distinctive fovea. The abdomen variously shaped, sometimes with dorsal scutes. Spinnerets terminal or subterminal, segments unequal in length. Chelicerae parallel to vertical, retrolateral margin with one tooth (undentati), bi/multicuspidate tooth (fissidentati) or multiple teeth (pluridentati). Legs with 2 claws, from short and stout, to very long and thin (up to 4.5 cm long). The first legs usually are more massive than the others, 3rd or 4th usually the longest. Distal podomeres on 1st and 2nd legs with ventral spines on tibiae and metatarsi. Copulatory organs from simple to very complicated, providing good diagnostic characters, though in some distant genera the genitalia may be very similar.

 

General References

Forster, R. & Forster, L. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their Worldwide Kin. Otago : University of Otago Press.

Hill, D.E. 2010. Sunda to Sahul: Trans-Wallacean distribution of recent salticid genera (Araneae: Salticidae). Peckhamia 80.1: 1-60

Jackson, R.R., Pollard, S.D., Nelson, X.J., Edwards, G.B. & Barrion, A.T. 2001. Jumping spiders (Araneae : Salticidae) that feed on nectar. Journal of Zoology, London 255: 25-29

Maddison, W. P., Bodner, M.R. & Needham, K.M. 2008. Salticid spider phylogeny revisited, with the discovery of a large Australian clade (Araneae: Salticidae). Zootaxa 1893: 49-64

Nieuwenhuys, E. 2003. Salticidae of Australia. http://www.xs4all.nl/~ednieuw/australian/Spidaus.html.

Proszynski, J. 2011. Monograph of Salticidae (Araneae) of the World: 1995-2011. April 27th, 2011. http://www.miiz.waw.pl/salticid/main.htm [Revised version April 27th, 2011]

Zabka, M. 1990. Remarks on Salticidae (Araneae) of Australia. Acta Zoologica Fennica 190: 415-418

Zabka, M. 2002. Zoogeography of Salticidae (Arachnida : Araneae) of New Zealand. Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 52: 459-464

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
30-Oct-2014 SALTICIDAE Blackwall, 1841 30-Oct-2014 MODIFIED
27-Oct-2014 ARANEOMORPHAE 27-Oct-2014 MODIFIED Dr Federica Turco Jurgen Otto
22-May-2014 SALTICIDAE Blackwall, 1841 30-Oct-2014 MODIFIED Dr Federica Turco (QM)
12-Nov-2013 SALTICIDAE Blackwall, 1841 30-Oct-2014 MODIFIED
09-Oct-2013 SALTICIDAE Blackwall, 1841 30-Oct-2014 MODIFIED
20-Jun-2012 30-Oct-2014 MODIFIED
20-Jun-2012 30-Oct-2014 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)